Timeouts are a hack.
Timeouts can be worse than a hack.
Timeouts with Retry logic are almost always a recipe for disaster.
Because Timeouts are at best a hack they should be avoided.

Today, I was upgrading our micro-service backtester infra. At the core layer, there is a piece of code that is responsible for connecting services to other services. This code has clearly been a source of trouble in the past. Signs of wear and tear include: copious use of globals, lots of debugging statements, and additions of randomness in choosing values. Any micro service based architecture is always going to get stressed in one place and that is at the edges between services. Having verbose debugging on it’s own is a good thing, but almost always is an after thought. Adding globals is a good way to allow inspection of a live system. Adding randomness when choosing defaults for retries and timeouts, well that’s a whole other level.

What went wrong? At the face of it, inter process requests are simple, especially when they can rely on tcp. A tcp connection is instantiated an asynchronous request is made and a reply is expected. On a sunny day, this works! Suppose the service you are requesting is either busy or dead? How would you tell the difference. Well if it’s dead, you can’t instantiate that tcp connection. One option is on learning that the service you rely on is dead you should just die as well. But what if there was a network partition and if you had only tried one more time, you could have recovered. Enter retry logic. What if the first attempt you made to connect somehow got lost, you should probably just give up after some time and try again later. What if you connected, but subsequently the service died. Well if you don’t hear from the service within some reasonable amount of time, you should try to reach another viable service. Well between all of these many retries and timeouts, if a bunch of services all try to reach one instance in particular that instance can freeze. Then they will all try again and this cycle will persist. So adding a bit of randomness can help keep a bunch of clients from locking one service up. Essentially each client agrees to try again, but in an unspecified amount of time, so that a coordinated request is unlikely. However, this just defers the problem, because if the amount of time that it takes to service all the requests exceeds the maximum amount of randomness inserted into the configuration. The service will still feel like everyone is asking it to do something at the same time. So today, when I restarted the system, every single service piled in to request the same piece of data from one service, the service got overwhelmed, then they all tried again at random intervals, but the service was still dealing with overflow from previous requests, which it could no longer honor, since they had timed out the previous query. REPEAT.

This leads, me to my first point, timeouts are a hack. Sure, there is probably some case where it is the proper thing to do. However, if you are willing to retry the same connection 3 times for 10 seconds, you are better off trying once for 30 seconds, especially if you are on TCP, where ordering of messages is guaranteed. If you are going to try different sites/connections, you are still better off trying less times and waiting longer. If you are patient, your probability of success is the same.

Suppose during a pandemic you go to buy toilet paper. When you get there you see a line going out the door, you are not sure if there will be toilet paper left when it is your turn. You balk and then come back 15 minutes later. If you couldn’t do any useful work in those 15 minutes, you might as well have waited on line. The supply of toilet paper does not depend on how many times you balk and rejoin the line. Counting the members on the line is a much better proxy, than a timeout. Asking the other members, how much toilet paper they expect to buy is even better. You might even be able to form a consensus among your peers on whether you expect there to be toilet paper. Perhaps, they have recorded their interactions with the store and know what quality of service you can expect.

All of these alternatives have analogues in a microservice infrastructure, I will not go through them here, they deserve their own post.

We are committed to the timeout/retry gambit. As far as I know the best timeout/retry combo is implemented in tcp. It uses Exponential backoff simply put, when you encounter a failure to reach the service, you try again but each time you wait a multiple(>1) of the period you waited last time before retrying again. We still need randomness. Otherwise, we will have just scheduled collisions exponentially far apart. Instead each of the shoppers multiplies their wait period by a random number between one and two raised to the power of retries. This spreads out the requests evenly each time increasing the amount of time that the requests are spread over accounting for the evidence that repeat failure indicates there are many clients.

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